Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Teenage Pregnancy Causes and Effects

Introduction Teenage pregnancy can be defined as pregnancy that occurs in young girls below the age of twenty, regardless of whether they are married or of adult age (Christensen and Rosen 1). Teenage pregnancy has been increasing at an alarming rate especially in the United States, Africa, and United Kingdom. It has become a of global concern because it not only affects the teenager and her family, but the society in general. An Increase in teenage pregnancy will in the end, lead to increased child poverty as well as degradation of the child’s well-being.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Teenage Pregnancy Causes and Effects specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Causes of teenage pregnancy One of the major causes of teen pregnancy is absence of affectionate supervision from parents or guardians. In the current society, parents are either too busy or too permissive. Apart from the provision of basic needs, parent s and guardians are not involved in emotional stability of the girl child. Teenagers, especially girls go through intriguing situations and changes in which they need parental support to understand and accept the changes. In case they lack this affectionate supervision from their parents, they seek answers from boyfriends who â€Å"seem† to be giving the affection and attention that ends up with a pregnancy. Another major cause of teenage pregnancy is peer pressure. As children grow to teenage hood, there is increased pressure to fit into certain peer groups. The peers may then push the girl into having sex in order to fit well in their group. In addition to this, the modern society allows the teenagers to have a lot of time and space with the opposite sex on their own, which results to instances of pregnancy at teenage hood. Other factors key to this concept is sexual abuse as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. Teenagers are exposed to alcohol and drugs making them lose c ontrol over their sexuality when drunk thus leading to pregnancies. Sexual abuse on the other hand occurs when the girls go for sex for pleasure without understanding the sexual impact. It is also evident when an adult sexually victimizes a teenage girl or a minor (Health Care Veda Ezine 1). Lack of sex education in schools to teenage girls has also contributed to increased teen pregnancy. This is because it leads to the indulgent in sexual activities without understanding the possible effects. It is therefore important to let girls understand issues surrounding sex and their sexuality as well as the possible impacts. This is the duty of teachers, religious, parents, and the entire society to impart the knowledge (Christensen and Rosen 1). On the other hand, the media has contributed to teenage pregnancy by advertising and showing programs, talk shows, as well as playing songs that advocate for sex. This makes teenagers practice what they see on the media thus ending up with pregnan cies.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most cases, teenagers do not have the knowledge of using and accessing contraceptives, something that contributes to teenage pregnancies. Other factors such as socio-economic and environmental issues are instrumental in causing teenage pregnancies. Effects of teenage pregnancy The effects of teenage pregnancies are many and unpleasent. Besides getting pregnant, the teenage girls and their children are at risk of being infected with STDs including HIV/AIDS. Additionally, there are health implications associated with early sex and pregnancies such as obstetric fistula, infant death, maternal death, eclampsia, and cervical cancer. In addition, other complications come about due to the undeveloped pelvis of the teenage girl (Health Care Veda Ezine 1). Teenage pregnancy also brings about physical and psychological trauma to the girl since she is faced with many dilemmas exposed to her by the family and the society. It also makes the parents feel ashamed because of their alleged negligence as viewed by the public or society (Christensen and Rosen 1). Lastly, teenage pregnancy has largely contributed to child poverty, since the girls are forced to drop out of school to take care of their babies. Conclusion It can thus be concluded that teenage pregnancy is a problem to the entire society. Moreover, since it largely caused by factors in the society, it is the obligation of every member of the society including religious leaders, parents, teachers, and the teenagers themselves to participate in addressing the issue. Works Cited Christensen, Sue, and Rosen, Ann. Teenage Pregnancy. 1996- September 25, 2011. Web. Health Care Veda Ezine. What are the causes of teenage pregnancy? 2009- September 25, 2011. Web. This essay on Teenage Pregnancy Causes and Effects was written and submitted by user Miranda Morris to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Sula By Toni Morrison Essays - Sula, Toni Morrison, Nel

Sula By Toni Morrison Many works of contemporary American fiction involve one individual's search for identity in a stifling and unsympathetic world. In "Sula," Toni Morrison gives us two such individuals. In Nel and Sula, Morrison creates two individual female characters that at first are separate, grows together, and then is separated once more. Although never physically reconciled, Nel's self discovery at the end of the novel permits the achievement of an almost impossible quest - the conjunction of two selves. And that is what I think really makes the novel work. I found that it's a great book that gives us a look at these two great characters. Morrison says she created Sula as "a woman who could be used as a classic type of evil force" and that she "wanted Nel to be a warm, conventional woman." She says "there was a little bit of both in each of these women... if they had been one woman... they would have been a rather marvelous person. But each one lacked something the other had." Morrison, thus, creates two completely different women yet allows them to merge into one. The sustainment of the two selves as one proves difficult and Morrison allows them to pursue different paths. But the two women's separate journeys and individual searches for their own selves leads to nothing but despair and Sula's death. Nel's realization that they were only truly individuals when they were joined as one allows them to merge once again. Morrison portrays Sula and Nel as binary opposites at the beginning of the novel. In our first view of Nel she is as conventional and conforming as a young lady can be: Under Helene's hand the girl became obedient and polite. Her mother calmed any enthusiasms that Nel showed until she drove her daughter's imagination underground. (p.18) In this passage Nel is merely an extension of her mother with no autonomy of her own. Helene's hand is the iron fist of authority from under which Nel cannot release herself. Morrison makes it clear here that Nel is a calm and unimaginative girl who conforms completely to her mother's strict orders. Sula, on the other hand, comes from a totally different background. She is her own person as she has "none of her mother's slackness" (p.29) and, unlike the "oppressive neatness"(p.29) of Nel's house, lives in a woolly house, where a pot of something was always cooking on the stove; where the mother, Hannah, never scolded or gave directions; where all sorts of people dropped in; where newspapers were stacked in the hallway, and dirty dishes left for hours at a time in the sink, and where a one-legged grandmother named Eva handed you goobers from deep inside her pockets or read you a dream. (p.29) Where Nel is confined, Sula is free. Where Nel has been raised to be an extension of her mother, Sula has surprisingly few ties to hers. Nel's imagination has been so restricted that the messiness of Sula's house along with its strange inhabitants and many visitors must seem like an absolute dream world. Similarly, the tidiness of Nel's house compared with the disorderliness of her own allows Sula to "sit still as dawn." (p.29) Morrison makes it clear in these instances that "each one lacked something the other had." That "something" is neither small nor insignificant. It is the fundamental make-up of each girl's character. Morrison deliberately portrays Nel and Sula in this manner to illustrate emphatically how entirely different they originally are. They are so different, in fact, that they are two facets of the same being - Nel conventional and orderly; and Sula unconventional and unsettled. The comfort each feels in the other's home demonstrates their initial and subconscious desire to merge into one being. Morrison intimates, in these instances, that the two facets cannot thrive individually and hints that they will soon become one. This merger takes place most dramatically with Sula's accidental murder of Chicken Little. Looking back on this incident Nel recalls that: All these years she had been secretly proud of her calm, controlled behavior when Sula was uncontrollable, her compassion for Sula's frightened and shamed eyes. Now it seemed that what she had thought was maturity, serenity and compassion was only the tranquillity that follows a joyful stimulation. Just as the water closed peacefully over the turbulence of Chicken Little's body, so had contentment washed over her enjoyment. (p.170) This passage reveals that the original binary opposite characters are no longer very different. During this incident Nel, the former calm and

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Jet Copies Narrative Essay Example

Jet Copies Narrative Essay Example Jet Copies Narrative Essay Jet Copies Narrative Essay Essay Topic: Narrative The JET Copies assignment is similar to the Bigelow Manufacturing Company machine breakdown example in the textbook. Hence the example was used as a guide. Days to Repair Simulation Process In simulating the number of days to repair, first a table was created based on the information given in the Repair time and Probability information table as found in the case. The created table was defined as â€Å"Lookup† in the array information for VLookup function in Microsoft Excel. Next, based on the probability information provided, a Cumulative Probability column was generated by adding the probability numbers given (each with the number above it) and distributing the probability to the number of possible repair days from 1-4. For example, a . 20 probability corresponds to 2 repair days. Next, simulating the repair times, random numbers were generated in Microsoft Excel, with the VLookup function referencing the â€Å"Lookup† table; and based on the range of the random number generated returns the associated number of repair day(s). Interval Between Successive Breakdowns Simulation Process According to the continuous distribution information provided, interval between successive breakdowns is 0-6 weeks. Based on the Bigelow Manufacturing example, the formula for continuous probability function for the time between breakdowns is f(x) =x/18, 0 x 6 weeks. To simulate the interval successive breakdowns, random numbers were generated and the result multiplied by 6 and Square root. This gives the number of weeks between machine breakdowns. Cumulative Time was also generated adding the result of the generated square root and stopping just a bit above 52 weeks for the one year simulation requirement. Lost Revenue Simulation Process An actual loss number was not provided according to the case. It only gave a range from 2000-8000 copies that they expect to sell per day at 10 cents each. It also indicates using a uniform probability in the same range. Based on this, a random number was generated between 2000 and 8000. Next the random number was multiplied by number of days to repair and . 10(cost of each copy). The adding up the total gives the total loss that could be expected in a year. Putting it Together The first step is working on the breakdown interval. This means generating the random numbers for the simulation with the Cumulative Time needed to run the simulation, in this case 1 year. Next step is adding the Repair Time assumption and simulating by generating the random numbers for this portion. The next process is generating the range numbers for calculating the loss revenue for the days the copier is down. Additionally, the number of repair times is multiplied by the cost of a copy and by the random number generated. This is done for each week until it is just about 52 weeks. Answer to the Case Study The Total Revenue that would be lost according to the simulation is $14,235. 20. JET Copies should purchase a backup copier since the simulated total lost revenue exceeds their threshold of $12,000. However, because this simulation was only conducted for a year, simulation for multiple years should be conducted and an average of these results examined as was the in the Bigelow Manufacturing example to accommodate for variations. Another option to explore is for JET Copies to obtain historical from other companies that have used the same copier outside of the University.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Art and architecture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Art and architecture - Essay Example This feature of art came with the civilization of humans, and it was dominant among the Middle Eastern Cultures, which included Egypt and Assyria. Actually, they were a development of pictorial images where the aspect of three dimensions was captured in the end products. In America, the art was introduced by the Italian sculptors. Below is a relief sculpture of the famous Mohammed and historical law-givers. This bas type figure is found in the Supreme Court building. The building is based in Washington, DC. Corinthian column Corinthian columns represent some of the oldest Greek architecture. It dates back to the fifth century BC. They came into existence through the inventions of Callimachus, who was a sculptor and architect then in Greece. It is named after Corinth, which is a city in Greece. It is amazing that despite this technology having originated in Greece, it is more advanced and widely used in other parts of the world like Rome, Italy and America than it is used in Greece. A dditionally, among all the orders which had been developed by then, it remains to be the most ornate to date. Basically, it is just a column style which depicts classical orders for architecture, and it has its top decorated with very lavish ornaments as seen from the picture below. The tops have a finishing, which makes them look as flowers and acanthus leaves, and the shaft is grooved but not necessarily always. The ornaments flare outwards. This is the Corinthian column found at the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Similar style is found at the Supreme Court building. The finishing styles may vary. Dome In its simplest form, a dome can be described as an architectural hemisphere which in most cases forms the roofs of buildings. It is hollow inside and mostly has a polygonal base which holds it strong. Dome structures are very strong, and since times immemorial, they have been used to depict efficiency and strength of architectural designs and structures. Many years ago in t he Middle East, domes were common in modest buildings or tombs of eminent persons houses, but the architecture was accentuated by the Roman Architecture Revolution in temple architecture. Domes technology was further advanced by spread of Christianity. The Muslim influence through the conquest of Greek-Roman Syria also adopted the technology in almost all their structures. The name â€Å"dome† credits the shape of the structure, which is a round-vault. Today, this technology still continues, and in America it was influenced by the ideologies of the Renaissance period. The US Capitol build has a dome on its roof, and it is used to signify the strength of democracy, which the US advocates, and efficiency in the building of the structure. Below is the picture of the Dome of the US Capital. Engaged column This is a very expensive architecture technology. Basically, it is a column that is partially attached to the wall. It can be said to be a â€Å"hemisphere column,† but t he projections vary between a third and a quarter of its diameter. This configuration earns its name, â€Å"the engaged column,† from the aspect of it being engaged to the wall. All over the world, the technology has been used most in cella walls. It is very common in the Roman architecture, mainly being used for ornamental purposes in the architecture. Historically, they were observed in the fifth

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Home Health Care Services for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Research Paper

Home Health Care Services for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Caregivers - Research Paper Example The paper throws light on Alzheimer disease, incurable diseases that worsen with age and eventually lead to death. Alzheimer sufferers in 2006 were 26.6 million. It is predicted that, by 2050, it will affect 1 in every 85 people worldwide. Alzheimer disease symptoms can easily be confused with other age related diseases. The first, early symptoms of Alzheimer are trouble in remembering events that may have occurred recently. It is confirmed using behavioral evaluations, thinking abilities and brain scan tests. At an advanced stage, symptoms include irritability, confusion, aggression, trouble with language mood swings, long term memory loss, withdrawal from family and society, loss of body functions, which leads to eventual death. Researchers infer that the life expectancy after diagnosis relatively seven years with three percent of patients living for more than fourteen years after diagnosis. There are several possible, suggested ways that can be used to delay symptoms in older indi viduals. These ways include a balanced diet, exercise and mental stimulation. These ways can effectively manage the symptoms, therefore, making the patient more comfortable. Since Alzheimer disease is incurable and degenerative, the patient depends on care given by other people. In most cases, the role of the caregiver is usually taken by taken a close relative or the spouse. Alzheimer disease places a massive burden on the caregivers. This places pressure on the caregiver’s life involving psychological, social, economic and physical aspects of his or her life. It is also extremely expensive disease to the family and society. United States and other countries are carrying out research on Alzheimer disease seeking its treatment and prevention. Professional home health agencies give support to the care givers. If the caregiver knows the services rendered by the agencies and know the right time to transit from home to palliative care, gives the caregiver respite and peace. Preve ntion as the basis for effective home care There is no absolute evidence that supports measures as effective in preventing Alzheimer disease. Studies conducted globally regarding delaying and prevention of the disease show inconsistent results. However, there have been proposed relationships between some factors such as diet, pharmaceutical products and cardiovascular risks in relation to developing the disease. Cardiovascular risks factors like diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking are associated with a risk of Alzheimer disease. It is proposed that Mediterranean diet that includes fruits and vegetables, wheat, cereals, fish, red wine and olive oil reduces the risk of this disease. However, there is little evidence to prove that moderate use of alcohol specifically red wine lowers the risk of Alzheimer disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce inflammation associated with amyloidal plaques, which increases the chances to be affected by Alzheimer disea se. Research as also shown that people who get involved in intellectual activities, for example, playing board games, reading, completing crossword puzzles, regular social involvement and playing musical instruments are at a lower risk of getting Alzheimer disease. Medical marijuana has been found to hinder the progress of the disease. It prevents by hindering formation of deposits associated with brain disease. However, cannabinoids have not been found to improve or treat the disease. Environmental factors such as metal intake especially aluminum and exposure to solvents increases the risk of Alzheimer although these studies have been criticized based on credibility and accuracy. Management and home based care for Alzheimer patients As explained earlier, there is no absolute cure for Alzheimer disease. The medication available offers small symptomatic help but remains in palliative in nature. The current treatment they can be given to Alzheimer patients

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Business Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Business Management - Essay Example When compared to large numbers of changes occurred over the last few decades in technology, lifestyle etc. the management system and concepts across the world seem to have evolved a little change (Hamel and Breen, 2007, p. 4). Bateman and Snell (p. 14) stated that business management is the process in which managers are to work with people and other resources with a view to accomplish organizational goals both effectively and efficiently. Efficiency is related to achieving organizational goals with minimal waste of resources by making best possible use of people, time, money and materials. Effectiveness refers to achieving organizational goals in a way that desired and expected results are gained. Managing a business takes a number of different segments and sections such as human resource management, financial management, marketing management, knowledge management, total quality management and so on. Since the contemporary business contexts are influenced by major economic and market forces such as globalization, technology advances, competition etc. organizations are increasingly giving importance to certain management segments so as to maintain competitive advantage and to compete with other market players. As management is basically the process of managing resources in a firm and getting things done through people, process or technology, different organizations follow different management styles. The management process in a business organization is comprised of the very basic four elements such as planning and strategizing, organizing, leading and controlling and decision making (Gomez, Mejia and Balkin, p. 5). These basic four elements are typically very prominent at almost all different organizations and these are widely used worldwide for effectively managing the resources. These four basic components of management are also the key elements in all other

Friday, November 15, 2019

Impact Of Internet Advertising On Television Advertising

Impact Of Internet Advertising On Television Advertising Various techniques and methods have been used by advertisers to convey the message their product is meant for and to create a brand image. This paper basically deals with the evolution of advertising, the typesof advertising and concentrating on the two most important types i.e. television and internet advertising. A comparison has been done of the two major types of advertising and the impact of internet advertising on television advertising is shown. EVOLUTION OF ADVERTISING: Earlier the capitalists ruled the market and early advertising was done by simple announcement of goods or services available in the traditional placard style. The government stepped in to counterweight the monopoly created by capitalism, but nature despises a vacuum and eventually the competing force came along. Once they realised that they were dependent on a single economy, the adversarial entities also got into the advertising game in order to attract business by this means rather than debasing the market, consumers and each other. The mass production of posters and circulars was initiated after the invention of Gutenbergs printing press in 1450. The first advertisment was a handbill, printed in Englishand introduced in 1472. The main purpose of this handbill was to propagate about the sale of a prayer book.This followed by the first newspaper ad, offering a prize money for finding 12 stolen horses, 200 years later.Classified ads started appearing frequently in Englands newsletter by the 17th century.These ads just consisted of the description of the product and their price whereas color and illustrations were introduced in the late 19th century. The commision system i.e. giving a discount of 25% on the ad space in newspapers, was introduced by the first advertising agency which was set up in 1841 by Volney Palmer in Boston. The concept of space selling initiated from here. The first full-service advertising agency was N.W.Ayer Son, established in 1869. Pears Soap launched one of the initial highly successful advertising campaigns. Thomas Barratt, Father of modern advertising, introduced a series of advertisements that featured children, nature and beautiful women, in order to promote the companys product. The influential inventions that have helped to shape media and in turn advertising are: Printing press: Broadcast of information done in the form of words through different newspapers and magazines. Radio: With the invention of radio, for the first time, advertising was heard and not just seen. The sales of products advertised on radio increased since every home in America was in a possession of a radio. The advertisers started promoting their products with the advent of jingles. Television: The invention changed everything. Invented in 1920s, television became popular in 1950s after the decrease in price. With this invention print and radio had to take a backseat as for the first time a commercial message was broadcasted with sight, sound as well as motion. Internet: The invention of internet technology has made the jobs of the advertisers quite easier and more effective as it is a very powerful and fast growing communication medium that provides the consumer with easy and quick access to information and knowledge. WHAT IS ADVERTISING? Advertising can be explained as the promotion of ideas, goods or services which results in the promotion of companies. The demand of the product can be increased by promoting about the product through advertising. Some find advertising to be an unnecessary assault on their senses-typified by either a billboard distorting a beautiful landscape or a loud-mouthed boor hard selling something they dont need. Others find it an unnecessary economic burden-the one that inflates the price of everything that is being bought. But advertising actually tends to take many forms apart from the various definitions given to it. It includes communication that evidently attempts to facilitate a transaction, reaction or action. Social interactions do not necessarily have the variant of advertising in it but industrial democratic societies revolve around it. Word of mouth is not an appropriate way to sell mass produced products-they must be delivered to distant consumers who have knowledge about them. Similarly an industrialized democratic society cannot operate/survive without competition or the ability of varied competitors to offer alternatives. Mass production, then, is nothing but freedom of speech, long distance. Advertising can be seen as a promoting strategy for a companys products in order to drive sales and services but also to create a brand identity and to communicate changes to the new product/service to the customers. Advertising has become an integral part of the corporate world and hence companies invest a considerable amount of revenue on it as their advertising budget. The various reasons for advertising are: There are various reasons and media which can be used for advertising. On this basis there are several branches of advertising. Print Advertising Newspapers, Brochures ,Magazines, Fliers It is one of the most popular and common means of advertising. The advertising space is sold according to the position of the advertisement, the area occupied by the advertisement and the readership of the publications. Print media also offers promotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. Example: Outdoor Advertising Billboards, Tradeshows and Events, Kiosks. It also a very popular medium for advertising attracting the outdoor customers through the use of billboards, kiosks and various events and tradeshows organized by the company. Example: Broadcast advertising -Radio, Television and the Internet Television, radio and the internet make this medium of advertising very popular amongst the various types of customers. The popularity of television advertisements was seen to grow right after the moment they were introduced. The total cost depends on time of broadcast, the span of the advertisement and the popularity of the television channel on which it is to be broadcasted. Example: Vodafone Essar initiated the Zoozoo campaign and won three awards including two gold and one silver at the AME awards ceremony held in Shanghai. The radio has been decreasing in popularity ever since television and internet advertising have been introduced, but still certain small-scale advertisers prefer them. Covert Advertising Advertising in Movies This is a special type of advertising in which a brand or product is integrated in some entertainment channels like television shows, movies or sports. There is no commercial specifying about the product or brand in the entertainment but it is evidently or subtly showcased in the entertainment show. Examples of covert advertising are: The American Idol judges: Paula, Randy and Simon all sitting at their large desk and drinking out of a large cup that says Coca-Cola. BMW, Ford and Ashton Martin cars were featured in the recent James Bond movie Casino Royale. Surrogate Advertising Advertising Indirectly It is prominently used in scenarios where advertising a particular product has been banned by the law. Products like alcohol and cigarettes are prohibited any kind of advertisement in several countries due to the injurious effect of these products on the health of people. These products have to innovatively come up with many other products that might have the same brand name and which will indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or alcohol of the same brand. Example: Kingfisher and Fosters are beer brands that use surrogate advertising to advertise their products. Public Service Advertising Advertising for Social Causes It is a technique that uses advertising to convey and promote social messages and issues like global warming, AIDS, poverty, illiteracy, energy conservation, etc. David Oglivy, one of the founders of marketing and advertising concepts, encouraged the use of advertising for a social cause. He once quoted: Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes. Example: Celebrity Advertising: The modern day consumer is gradually getting immune to the claims made in various advertisements but there is still a section of advertisers that depend on the celebrities and the popularity that they bring along with them. Celebrity advertising involves signing up celebrities for various ad campaigns which includes television ads and print ads. Example: TELEVISION ADVERTISING HISTORY: Broadcasting developed with companies selling radios but gradually the companies realised that many households listened to radios for a significant amount of time everyday. These companies started a way to explore this medium as a way to convey their message across to the masses. Radio broadcasting began with radio program broadcast by station WEAF in the New York City on August 28, 1922. It was a 10 minute advertisement for the suburban apartment housing. By the late 20s radio advertising had advanced dramatically and was dominating the advertising world. The utilised the creative component to sell one product or another. This paved way for genesis of television advertising that was predicted to begin in a few more decades. It took United States a long time to recover from the Depression and the World War II which resulted in the gradual hold of the full time telecating until 1948. As television was totally a new phenomenon i.e. the one offering sound and moving pictures, the advertising sector moved very vigilantly into this domain as they were not sure what method would work best to promote their rpoducts on television to their customers. After doing extensive research through study and surveys, the advertising agencies concluded that the most effective way, at that moment, to reach their consumers was by creating shows that featured a single product or a line of products from a single company. This concept gave rise to television shows of the 1950s like Colgate Comedy Hour, Kraft Television Theater and Coke time. As the television gained popularity with more and more people watching it, the television networks raised the cost of doing business and this led to the increase of the cost incurred for telecasting a product on television forcing a massive change between the relationship of advertising agencies, the sponsors/clients and television networks. Sylvester Pat Weaver, NBC executive, introduced the magazine concept according to which the sponsors would purchase blocks of time in a show instead of sponsoring an entire show. This idea was resisted by Masison Avenue but after experimentation it was seen that this was an effective method in case of various packaged-goods companies manufacturing an abundance of brand names like Procter and Gamble with products like Jif (peanut butter), Tide (detergent) and Crest (toothpaste). The magazine concept dominated the television advertising by 1960 and from thereon. In order to reach maximum number of consumers, sponsors spread their messages across the schedule of various television shows. The evolution of the magazine concept marked the birth of most modern television advertising. CATEGORIES OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING: PROS AND CONS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING: PROS: CONS: A lot of people can be reached on an international, national as well as regional level in a short period of time. Viewers may not view the commercial if it is not interesting. Different segments of people can be targeted with ease through one medium at the same time. The exposure is limited due to a specified amout of airtime and ad clutter and amount of information communicated is less. Helps to convey the message across with the help of sight, sound and motion and reach different targeted audiences easily. In order for the consumer to retain the advertisement and act, the exposure should not be restricted to a few numbers. The advertisement needs to reach the viewer minimum 5-7 times or else it will result in nothing but a waste of money. People are not loyal to one channel. Availability of various channels due to cable leads to various choices and so it becomes difficult for an advertiser to know the exact viewership for a particular program in order to reach maximum number of people. It is not necessary that a viewer may indulge in watching commercials during a break. Infact he may end up doing lot of other things like going to the bathroom, getting a snack or having a conversation with someone The relative cost of commercials is higher since it is dominant in the area of influence and the cost depends on creativity, airtime and production. INTERNET ADVERTISING: With the advancement and development in technology came the internet, which is considered to be the most efficient channel for communication. Internet was not considered as a serious option for advertising as the websites were expensive and was mainly funded by government and various academic institutions. But nowadays internet advertising has become one the most popular medium and the websites that did not support this did not survive. Internet advertising followed the commencement of the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web was introduced in 1991 by CERN located in Switzerland. It acted as an easily accessible medium for various companies to market their products. Online advertising experienced a rapid boom and by 2001, top companies like Yahoo!, Microsoft, American Online and Amazon managed to attain a viewership of around 125-442 million viewers. Originally advertisers had to pay to advertise on the internet, mostly in the manner of a banner at the top of a webpage.But nowadays they have to pay depending on the number of clicks their ad receives. The initial web ads were banners which were nothing but horizontal adverts located across the top of the webpage. But with the rapid evolution of the internet, the concept of banners also progressed. Now the information of the advertiser could be obtained just by scrolling the mouse over the banner. Some banners even contain short videos that show the product in action. The advertisers and webmasters found new ways of placing the ads on the internet apart from banners. The ads could now be included within the content of the page, vertical banners and small buttons. Vertical banners became very famous with the advertisers as the viewer can see the ad while scrolling down a long page. Earlier all these advertisements were encoded by the webmaster and then added to the webpage but nowadays there are third party organisations who do the job of putting the ads into the webpage. Internet advertising has become a necessity for all kinds of organizations, big or small, and it is a rare situation to not find a marketing department of a large firm that does not include an e-Advertising group. Although it is the most feasible way to advertise, still internet advertising accounts for just 2% of all the advertising spending in the economy today.This is mostly because of ths fact that internet advertisements are much cheaper than the television, radio or print advertisements. TYPES OF INTERNET ADVERTISING: BANNER ADS: Their main purpose is to do branding so that the consumer can recall it later and the other one is to ensure direct sales by either just clicking on the banner or calling the number given in the banner or just visiting the sales location mentioned. Example: UNICAST ADS: These type of ads pop-up and demonstrate something similar to a miniature television commercial. If the consumer is interested in the ad and wants to learn more about the product, then he can do so by clicking on the ad. Example: SIDEBAR ADS: These are the ads that are placed vertically on the computer screen and are generally known as skyscraper ads. They are larger than the banner ads and are more effective then them since they cannot be scrolled off the screen and so the time for which the viewer is on a particular page; he has to bear the sidebar ad. Example: BLOGGING: Blog is a type of website that used to maintain various comment entries, description of events or products and different materials like videos and graphics. Example: POP-UP ADS: These are ads that pop-up in another window and are more revenue generating then the banner ads. Example: SEARCH ENGINE SUBMISSION: This is done by submitting your site to different search engines and works better with smaller search engines. SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION: This strategy works by getting your website ranked amongst the top websites which makes it a point that someone is likely to visit your website. TEXT LINKS: These are links which the viewer can click to visit another site. Owners of two websites can agree to swap links meaning that both of them install a link on the other owners site. FLOATING ADS: These ads pop-up on the screen and then drift anywhere within a timespan of 5-30 seconds. Example: IMPACT OF INTERNET ADVERTISING ON TELEVISION ADVERTISING: The advertising industry has been dominated by the television industry for all these years until recently with the advent of internet which resulted in a social boom as the social networks provided viewers with online movies and video. A huge amount of time is spent by the viewers on the internet then watching television. Internet helps to satisfy particular interests of people more completely which television fails to do. The internet provides the viewers with more and a better choice which gives them immediate satisfaction by helping them concentrate on the subject they are looking for at that moment. The monopoly of television over its viewers is no longer prevalent and is gradually decreasing. The use of DVRs has also led viewers to switch from television to internet as the DVR owners are now skipping all the television commercials. Television ads are found to be long, troublesome and easily avoidable whereas there are certain types of internet advertising which cannot be avoided and it must be watched since it is brief and interesting. The marketers are now accomodating as much as 20% of their advertising budget to internet advertising as internet advertising is more interesting and affects the brand image in a completely different manner as compared to television advertising. Also, different viewers can view different advertisements on the same webpage while browsing through the internet whereas this option is not available with television advertising. Advertisers have realised that internet works as a direct communication medium with their customers and that providing them with useful information about their products, helps them build a customer database for their future use. The major characteristics of internet advertising that distinguishes it from television advertising are: CONCLUSION: In order to reap the benefits of information technology, Internet works as a stepping-stone. The future of internet advertising is very bright and advertisers should refocus their ideologies about advertising in relation to the use of internet and the policy pertaining to privatizing the internet service. The popularity of the internet can be seen by the usage in different regions depicted in the graph below: As it has been shown above that internet is gradually taking over the advertising market and destroying the monopoly of television advertising, we can easily say that internet advertising can turn out to be the new leader of advertising and entertainment in future.